Chinese COVID-19 Vaccines

Research and text by Xiaoyi Wang. Contributions and review by Suerie Moon, Adrián Alonso Ruiz, Surabhi Agarwal and Marcela Vieira.

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Key Research Findings

Vaccines developed and/or produced in China are estimated to comprise nearly half the total volume produced worldwide in 2021 (Herman 2021). Yet, compared to those developed and/or produced by Western or multinational firms, we have found relatively little analysis of Chinese vaccines and the role they may play in meeting global needs. (For brevity we use the term “Chinese vaccines” here to refer to vaccines developed by an entity based in China, recognizing that they are manufactured both within and outside of China).

This research summarizes the publicly-available data on regulatory approvals, efficacy, manufacturing and access to the four Chinese vaccines which seem to have the largest international footprint (Sinovac, Sinopharm-Beijing, Sinopharm-Wuhan and CanSino[1]). We found an estimated 1.2 billion doses for export through purchases by 67 countries/regions/COVAX, and 58.2 million doses for donation to 93 countries/UN peacekeepers.

 

Sinovac and Sinopharm-Beijing are the largest international players in terms of both volumes produced and countries where the vaccines are available, with significant production capacity projected for CanSino. We also found 17 manufacturing agreements with a total of 15 countries. Price data is limited, but where available, prices per dose sit approximately in the middle of the international range. While data is limited, we found over $1 billion had been invested in R&D, about half from public and half from private sources. In addition to 6 vaccines that have received regulatory approval, at least an additional 13 are under development.

Overall, we found Chinese vaccines are playing a large-scale role in responding to a number of countries’ demands for access to vaccine doses and technology.

[1] Note: This study did not include the Clover vaccine because of limited information at the time of research.

Sinovac

Regulatory approval

The Sinovac vaccine (which is also referred to as CoronaVac) first acquired emergency authorization in China on August 23, 2020 (Reuters 2020b). After that, Indonesia granted Sinovac emergency authorization on January 11, 2021; Turkey authorized the Sinovac shot on January 13; and Brazil followed suit on January 17 (Zimmer, Corum, and Wee 2020). China’s National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) granted “conditional marketing authorization” on February 6 (Xinhua News Agency 2021). Notably, the World Health Organization (WHO) granted Emergency Use Listing (EUL) on June 1, allowing the Sinovac vaccine to be included in COVAX (WHO 2021d). It then gained approval for emergency use in China in children and adolescents aged 3 to 17 on June 4 (Reuters 2021f). Currently, it is approved or has early, limited or emergency use authorization in 54 countries or regions (Zimmer, Corum, and Wee 2020).

Efficacy

WHO has compiled information on the efficacy of this vaccine based on data collected from trials in Turkey, Chile, Indonesia and Brazil (WHO 2021a). As is shown in Table 1, these trials found that the Sinovac vaccine enables a certain degree of protection against Covid-19, yet their efficacy rates vary. In Brazil, the efficacy against symptomatic disease was 50 to 51%, while in Turkey it was 84%. Against hospitalization, its efficacy was 100% in the trials in both Turkey and Brazil, while in Chile it was 85%.

Table 1. CoronaVac's clinical trials 

Study location
Population size
Schedule (days)
Design/measure of effect
Circulation of VOCs
Protection against symptomatic disease
Protection against hospitalization
Turkey
13000
0, 14
RCT/Efficacy
Limited
84% (65-92)
100% (20-100)
Chile
10.5 million
0, 28
Cohort/Effectiveness
P.1, B.1.1.7
67% (65-69)
85% (83-97)
Indonesia
1620
0, 14
RCT/Efficacy
Limited
65% (20-85)
Not estimated (a)
Brazil
12688
0, 14
RCT/Efficacy
Limited
51% (36-62)
100% (56-100)
Brazil
393 case-control pairs
0, 14 (b)
TND/Effectiveness
P.1
50% (11-71)
Not reported

Source: WHO 2021a

(a) No cases in either group

(b) Analysis based on receiving ≥ 1 dose.

RCT: randomized controlled trial; TND: test negative design

Vaccine manufacturing

After the third production line of the Sinovac vaccine was finished and put into commercial production in China, Sinovac Biotech Ltd. announced that its annual capacity of the vaccine reached 2 billion doses (Business Wire 2021). In addition, Sinovac has signed a number of manufacturing agreements with foreign manufacturers, with the estimated production overseas amounting to more than 1550 million doses. 5 out of the 7 partners are located in upper-middle income countries (UMIC) (with the two agreements with Butantan Institute in Brazil counted as one partner), among which Egypt, Indonesia and Brazil rank as the top three largest manufacturers (by volume) of the Sinovac vaccines. Table 2 below presents manufacturing agreements signed between Sinovac and other overseas manufacturers.

Table 2. Manufacturing agreements between Sinovac and other manufacturers

Manufacturer
Manufacturer Type
Manufacturer Location
Income Level
Anticipated Production Dose/Year (in millions)
Anticipated Production Total Doses (in millions)
Date Arrangement Publicly Announced
Primary Market Intended For
VACSERA
Privately held
Egypt
Lower middle income
1200
Unspecified
22-mar-21
Egypt
Pharmaniaga Berhad
Publicly traded
Malaysia
Upper middle income
Unspecified
14
11-Jan-21
Upper middle income
Bio Farma
State-owned enterprise
Indonesia
Upper middle income
250
Unspecified
25-Aug-20
Indonesia
Butantan Institute
Government agency
Brazil
Upper middle income
Unspecified
20
05-feb-21
Brazil
Butantan Institute
Government agency
Brazil
Upper middle income
100
Unspecified
11-jun-20
Brazil
Kelun Life Science
Privately held
Sri Lanka
Lower middle income
Unspecified
13
27-may-21
Sri Lanka
Unspecified
Unspecified
Turkey
Upper middle income
Unspecified
Unspecified
12-may-21
Unspecified
Saidal Group
Government agency
Algeria
Lower middle income
Unspecified
Unspecified
28-jul-21
Unspecified

Source: based on data on COVID-19 Vaccine Manufacturing from Global Health Centre 2021

Vaccine access

According to Weidong Yin, Chairman of Sinovac, nearly 900 million doses of CoronaVac have been or will be administered through vaccine cooperation agreements with 20 countries outside of China (Sinovac 2021). The GHC Covid-19 vaccine database, which tracks information on purchases and donations of vaccines (data as of 7th October, 2021), has found that more than 600 million doses are going to 40 countries or regions (some countries have both purchased and donated doses), not including the 50 million doses going via COVAX.

 

In terms of purchasing deals, more than 646 million doses of the Sinovac vaccines have been purchased by 31 countries, regions or organizations around the world. Purchasing deals of the Sinovac vaccine are put in a descending order based on the number of doses in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1. Sinovac vaccine purchase agreements by purchaser's income level

Source: based on data on COVID-19 Vaccine Access from Global Health Centre 2021

Available data show that government purchases constitute the great majority of purchasing deals. Among the 39 arrangements in reference to the procurement of the Sinovac vaccine (with repetitive buyers involved), 29 of them are government purchases, 4 combination, 3 private purchasing deals, 2 private donations and 1 multilateral purchase with COVAX. The overwhelming proportion of the doses go to Indonesia, Brazil, Turkey and Chile. With regards to the income level of recipients (not including COVAX and CONMEBOL), there are 14 UMICs, 10 lower-middle income countries (LoMICs), 4 high-income countries (HICs) and 1 low income country (LIC). Notably, only around 50 million doses are purchased by COVAX, approximately 8% of the total for internationally-supplied Sinovac vaccines.

 

Price information is only available for 12 of the 39 purchasing agreements. Table 3 summarises the currently available data on prices, the ranking of which is from the lowest to the highest price per dose.

Table 3. Price information on purchasing deals of Sinovac vaccines

Buyer/recipient
Price (in USD million)
Price/Dose (in USD)
Date Deal First Announced Publicly
Brazil
1000
10
29-Jan-21
Cambodia
185
10
26-mar-21
Zimbabwe
32
10
15-mar-21
Brazil
216.72
10.84
05-feb-21
Thailand
138.55
11.55
08-sep-21
Philippines
362.5
14.5
11-Jan-21
Botswana
3
15
23-Apr-21
Thailand
1.5
15
18-mar-21
Ukraine
32.4
18
30-Dec-20
Ukraine
Not available
18
12-Jan-21
Dominican Republic
203.3
19
15-feb-21
Thailand
142.45
20.35
1-Apr-21

Source: based on data on COVID-19 Vaccine Access from Global Health Centre 2021

In terms of donations, over 8.5 million doses of the Sinovac vaccines have been donated to 22 countries worldwide by China, with a small share coming from the Red Cross Society of China. Donations comprise about 1% of the total volume exported. Across the 20 recipients of the Sinovac vaccine, 9 are classified as LoMICs, 8 are UMICs, 4 are LICs and 1 is HIC. The main recipients of the donations are El Salvador, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand (see Figure 2).

Figure 2. Sinovac vaccine donations

Source: based on data on COVID-19 Vaccine Access from Global Health Centre 2021

Sinopharm-Beijing

Regulatory approval

The Chinese government granted the Sinopharm-Beijing vaccine (which is also referred to as BIBP, BBIBP-CorV or COVIV-02) conditional market authorization on December 31, 2020 (Reuters 2020c). On September 14, the U.A.E. gave emergency approval for the vaccine and shortly after, on December 9, the U.A.E. gave Sinopharm-Beijing full approval (Zimmer, Corum, and Wee 2020). Subsequently, on January 29, 2021, after some countries in the Middle East had granted approvals, Hungary authorized the vaccine, becoming the first European country to use Chinese vaccines (Zimmer, Corum, and Wee 2020). On May 7, 2021, the WHO announced that it granted Sinopharm-Beijing emergency use listing (WHO 2021c). As of May, it has obtained approval or emergency authorization in 57 countries or regions worldwide (WHO 2021b). On July 20, after Sinovac, Sinopharm-Beijing was approved as the second domestic COVID-19 vaccine available for emergency use in children and adolescents (China Daily 2021b). Currently, it is approved or has early, limited or emergency use authorization in 76 countries or regions (Zimmer, Corum, and Wee 2020).

Efficacy

WHO has compiled information on the efficacy of the Sinopharm-Beijing vaccine (see Table 4), and it demonstrated overall efficacy of 78.1% against COVID-19 cases, with most of the population included in the trial aged between 18 and 59 years. Data on its performance in older adults (aged 60 or above) are limited, given that the proportion of this group was only around 2% in the trial. As of the time when the background document was published, two other studies were still ongoing in Peru and Argentina, which were expected to fill some of the data gaps.

Table 4. Efficacy of the Sinopharm Beijing's vaccine

Variable
Vaccine group - Nº at risk
Vaccine group - Nº of cases
Placebo group - Nº at risk
Placebo group - Nº of cases
VE% (95% CI)
Overall
13765
21
13765
95
78.1 (64.8, 86.3)
Severe
13765
0
13765
2
n.e.
Male
11598
18
11642
83
78.4 (64.1, 87.0)
Female
2167
3
2123
12
75.5 (13.3, 93.1)
18-59 years
13556
20
13559
94
78.1 (64.9, 86.3)
>=60 years
209
0
206
0
n.e.
Hypertension
374
0
367
4
n.e.
Diabetes
300
2
308
6
63.7 (-79.8, 92.7)
BMI>=30
3040
7
3080
36
80.7 (56.7, 91.4)
SARS-CoV-2 status: Baseline positive
n.r.
0
n.r.
1
n.e.
SARS-CoV-2 status: Baseline negative
n.r.
16
n.r.
83
80.8 (67.2, 88.8)

n.r.= not reported. n.e.= not estimated. VE was not estimated when the number of cases was less than 5.

Source: WHO 2021b

Vaccine manufacturing

On July 31, 2021, Sinopharm CNBG put a new production site into operation for its COVID-19 vaccines in Beijing, China, and announced it had expanded annual vaccine production to 5 billion doses (CGTN 2021). Sinopharm-Beijing has also collaborated with a number of producers in other countries, with an anticipated production capacity per year totaling 290 million doses. Among the 6 manufacturing agreements captured in the GHC database, 4 of the manufacturers are located in HICs and 2 are headquartered in LoMICs (see Table 5). The UAE and Morocco are so far the top two largest foreign producers of the COVID-19 Vaccine BIBP.

Table 5. Manufacturing agreements between Sinopharm-Beijing and other manufacturers

Manufacturer
Manufacturer Type
Manufacturer Location
Income Level
Anticipated Production Dose/Year (in millions)
Anticipated Production Total Doses (in millions)
Date Arrangement Publicly Announced
Primary Market Intended For
Group 42
Privately held
United Arab Emirates
High Income
200
Unspecified
29-mar-21
United Arab Emirates
BCHT Bioteknologi Indonesia
Unspecified
Indonesia
Upper middle income
Unspecified
Unspecified
25-Aug-20
Indonesia
Sothema
Privately held
Morocco
Lower middle income
60
Unspecified
05-jul-21
Unspecified
Hemopharm
Privately held
Serbia
Upper middle income
30
Unspecified
12-jul-21
Serbia
National Vaccine Plant
Unspecified
Hungary
High Income
Unspecified
Unspecified
31-may-21
Hungary
Incepta Pharmaceuticals
Privately held
Bangladesh
Lower middle income
Unspecified
Unspecified
16-may-21
Bangladesh

Source: based on data on COVID-19 Vaccine Manufacturing from Global Health Centre 2021

Vaccine access

It is estimated that more than 44 million doses of the Sinopharm-Beijing vaccine have been administered at home and abroad (Sinopharm 2021b). The GHC Covid-19 vaccine database  has also kept track of agreements on purchases and donations regarding the Sinopharm-Beijing vaccine, which has captured that more than 469 million doses are going to 90 countries or regions (some countries have both purchased and donated doses), not including distribution via COVAX (data as of 7th October, 2021).

 

A total of 480 million doses have been purchased by 47 countries, regions or organizations globally (see Figure 3). Again, government purchasing deals are the dominant composition of all signed deals. There are 52 entries recording the procurement of Sinopharm-Beijing vaccine (with repetitive recipients involved), 48 of them are government purchasing deals with 1 in the form of multilateral purchase (with COVAX), 1 combination deal (with Indonesia) and 2 private purchases. The majority of doses go to Bangladesh, COVAX, Iran, Peru and Morocco. Among the 45 destinations of the vaccines (not counting contribution to COVAX, UN peacekeepers and removing repetitions), 21 are UMICs, 17 are LoMICs, 5 are HICs and 2 LICs. In the case of the Sinopharm-Beijing vaccine, the proportion of doses purchased by COVAX is relatively higher than that of Sinovac, ranking the top 1 biggest deals together with Bangladesh. The COVAX deal of 60 million doses represents around 12.5% of the total number of doses.

Figure 3. Sinopharm-Beijing's purchase agreements by purchaser's income level

Source: based on data on COVID-19 Vaccine Access from Global Health Centre 2021

Regarding the purchasing prices, be it price per deal or price per dose, data are missing in most cases, with information only available for 12 of the 49 purchasing agreements. Table 6 below sheds some light on the available price information.

Table 6. Price information on purchasing deals of Sinopharm-Beijing vaccine

Buyer/recipient
Price (in USD million)
Price/Dose (in USD)
Date Deal First Announced Publicly
Argentina
80
20
8-Feb-21
Argentina
30
15
10-Jun-21
Argentina
216
9
7-Jul-21
Bangladesh
150
10
18-may-21
Nepal
160
10
16-jun-21
Comoros
2.45
12.25
26-jun-21
Mongolia
18
15
2-Apr-21
Sri Lanka
150
15
25-may-21
Guyana
1.7
17
09-jun-21
Senegal
3.71
18.55
13-Jan-21
Argentina
80
20
08-feb-21
Hungary
178.6
35.72
Unspecified

Source: based on data on COVID-19 Vaccine Access from Global Health Centre 2021

In terms of donations, the Sinopharm-Beijing vaccine has so far been the most prevalent type among the four Chinese vaccines. Over 49 million doses of the Sinopharm-Beijing vaccines have been donated to 76 countries worldwide by China (not including UN peacekeepers). In this case, donations comprise about 11% of the total volume exported. Countries that have signed donation deals of the Sinopharm-Beijing shot are listed below in Figure 4 based on the number of doses that they receive. Among them, 37 recipients are LoMICs, 20 are UMICs, 13 are LICs, and 6 are HICs. The main recipients of the Sinopharm-Beijing vaccines are Cambodia, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and El Salvador.

Figure 4. Sinopharm-Beijing vaccine donations

Source: based on data on COVID-19 Vaccine Access from Global Health Centre 2021

Sinopharm-Wuhan

Regulatory approval

On February 25, 2021, the Sinopharm-Wuhan vaccine (which is also referred to as WIBP-CorV) developed by Wuhan Institute of Biological Products, an affiliate of China National Pharmaceutical Group (Sinopharm) was granted conditional approval in China (NMPA 2021a). On August 19, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the Philippines granted an emergency use authorization (EUA) for the COVID-19 vaccine of Sinopharm-Wuhan (Analou 2021). Besides, in August, Sinopharm-Wuhan was approved for emergency use in the population aged 3-17 in China (Global Times 2021). Currently, it is approved or has early, limited or emergency use authorization in 3 countries (including the Philippines) (Zimmer, Corum, and Wee 2020).

Efficacy

On May 26, 2021, interim results of a randomized clinical trial in UAE and Bahrain of the Sinopharm-Wuhan vaccine were published (Al Kaabi et al. 2021). The trial found efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 cases of 72.8% and against severe disease of 100% (Al Kaabi et al. 2021).

Vaccine Manufacturing

At a press conference held on February 28, 2021, the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products announced that its annual production of the Sinopharm-Wuhan shot could reach 100 million doses, and that an expansion plan is under evaluation (CNR 2021). So far (as of 7th October, 2021), the GHC database has not captured any data on manufacturing deals signed regarding the Sinopharm-Wuhan vaccine.

Vaccine access

The Sinopharm-Wuhan vaccine is among the four vaccines approved by the Ministry of Commerce in China for export (Sinopharm 2021a). However, the GHC database has not found any publicly-available information concerning purchasing deals or donations (as of 7th October, 2021).

CanSino

Regulatory approval

The CanSino vaccine (which is also referred to as Ad5-nCoV or Convidecia), a single-dose COVID-19 vaccine developed jointly by CanSino and a research institute at the Academy of Military Science (AMS), was first approved for military use in China on June 29, 2020 (Reuters 2020a). The NMPA authorized the CanSino vaccine for conditional marketing in February, 2021 (NMPA 2021b). In the same month, it received Emergency Use Authorization in Pakistan and Mexico (Reuters 2021c; 2021b). Apart from that, the Hungarian National Institute of Pharmacy and Nutrition granted a Good Manufacturing Practice ("GMP") for the CanSino vaccine in March, 2021 (Reuters 2021d). In June, Malaysia granted conditional approval for emergency use (Reuters 2021g). Currently, it is approved or has early, limited or emergency use authorization in 10 countries (Zimmer, Corum, and Wee 2020).

Efficacy

On February 8, 2021, Faisal Sultan, Pakistan’s Special Assistant to the Prime Minister on National Health Services, Regulations & Coordination, posted on Twitter that the CanSino vaccine showed an efficacy of 65.7% against symptomatic disease and 90.98% against severe disease according to a multi-country analysis, which is one of the most cited sources when it comes to the efficacy of the CanSino shot (Reuters 2021a). In addition, the company in February also reported that the single-shot vaccine’s protection could decline over time, with only 65.28% of efficacy after four weeks (Reuters 2021e). Zhu Tao, chief scientific officer of CanSino Biologics, announced that, “[a] booster shot six months later led to a 7-times to 10-times increase in neutralising antibody levels, so we expect in this case efficacy could reach over 90%” (Reuters 2021e).

Vaccine manufacturing

A new production site was launched by CanSino Biologics in Tianjin in early 2021, bringing the predicted manufacturing capacity to over 600 million doses of Convidecia by 2022 (China Daily 2021a). The new production base alone could reach an annual production capacity of around 250 million doses (China Daily 2021a). CanSino has also signed agreements with manufacturers overseas. The GHC database records 4 such agreements (see Table 7), 3 with manufacturers located in UMICs and the remaining one in a LoMIC. In particular, Russia is the largest partner of producing Convidecia, and Petrovax is anticipated to manufacture around 120 million doses annually.

Table 7. Manufacturing agreements between CanSino and other manufacturers

Manufacturer
Manufacturer Type
Manufacturer Location
Income Level
Anticipated Production Dose/Year (in millions)
Anticipated Production Total Doses (in millions)
Date Arrangement Publicly Announced
Primary Market Intended For
Drugmex
Privately held
Mexico
Upper middle income
Unspecified
8
01-feb-21
Mexico
AJM Pharma Pvt
Privately held
Pakistan
Lower middle income
Unspecified
20
06-jul-20
Pakistan
Petrovax
Privately held
Russian Federation
Upper middle income
120
Unspecified
21-sep-20
Russian Federation
Solution Group
Publicly traded
Malaysia
Upper middle income
Unspecified
Unspecified
30-jul-21
Malaysia

Source: based on data on COVID-19 Vaccine Manufacturing from Global Health Centre 2021

Vaccine access

Compared with other vaccine candidates, the CanSino vaccine is much less covered in news articles and there are few sources explaining details on how many doses of Convidecia have been administered so far. Without much data in terms of donations, the GHC Covid-19 vaccine database has mapped out 121 million doses of Convidecia purchased by 7 countries outside of China (data as of 7th October, 2021) (see Figure 5).

Figure 5. CanSino vaccine purchase agreements by purchaser's income level

As with other vaccines, governments were the main buyers of the CanSino vaccine. Among the 8 entries (Pakistan has two), 7 are government purchases and only 1 private purchase (with Pakistan). As is illuminated in the graph, most of the doses are distributed to Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia and Argentina. Among the recipient countries, 5 are UMICs, 2 are LoMICs and 1 HIC. Brazil alone takes up nearly 50%.

 

The information on purchasing prices of the CanSino vaccine is largely missing, be it price per deal or price per dose. The only two data points available are from the agreements with Brazil and Argentina. While the agreement with Brazil is worth 1020 USD million in total and that with Argentina is worth 91.8 USD million, the per-dose prices are both 17 USD.

 

The GHC database did not find any information regarding donations of the CanSino vaccine (as of 7th October, 2021).

Source: based on data on COVID-19 Vaccine Access from Global Health Centre 2021

Vaccine R&D investments

Data on research and development (R&D) investments into Chinese vaccines is limited, making it hard to draw a comprehensive picture. Nevertheless, the GHC database has found over USD 1 billion of investments into Chinese vaccine R&D (see Figure 6).

Figure 6. Distribution of R&D investments in COVID-19 vaccines in China

As shown in Figure 6, almost half of the financial contribution to R&D in COVID-19 vaccines in China came from the private sector, including companies such as Advantech Capital, Vivo Capital and China Evergrande Group. Apart from that,  China National Pharmaceutical Group (CNPG) spent 145 million USD in developing its Sinopharm vaccines.

Philanthropic organizations account for only 3.85% of the total. This analysis has its limitations, considering that most of the information on the resources and budget allocated from the central government to pharmaceutical companies is unavailable. Therefore, the proportion of the investment made by the public sector could be severely underestimated.

Source: based on data on COVID-19 Vaccine R&D Investments from Global Health Centre 2021

List of all vaccines being developed in China

Type of vaccine
Name
Trial
Regulatory approval
Protein Subunit
Anhui Zhifei Longcom: ZF2001
7 trials in 1 country
Approved
Non Replicating Viral Vector
CanSino: Ad5-nCoV
9 trials in 2 countries
Approved
Inactivated
Minhai Biotechnology Co: SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero Cells)
5 trials in 1 country
Approved
Inactivated
Sinopharm (Beijing): BBIBP-CovV (Vero Cells)
12 trials in 3 countries
Approved
Inactivated
Sinopharm (Wuhan): Inactivated (Vero Cells)
8 trials in 6 countries
Approved
Inactivated
Sinovac: CoronaVac
19 trials in 2 countries
Approved
Non Replicating Viral Vector
AMMS: Ad5-nCoV
1 trial in 1 country
Not Approved
Inactivated
Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences: Inactivated (Vero Cells)
5 trials in 3 countries
Not Approved
Protein Subunit
Clover: SCB-2019
7 trials in 2 countries
Not Approved
Protein Subunit
Livzon Mabpharm Inc: V-01
2 trials in 1 country
Not Approved
Protein Subunit
National Vaccine and Serum Institute: Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (CHO Cell)
2 trials in 1 country
Not Approved
RNA
Pfizer/BioNTech: BNT162b1
5 trials in 2 countries
Not Approved
Protein Subunit
Shanhgai Zerun Biotechnology, Walvax Biotechnology: 202-CoV
2 trial in 1 country
Not Approved
Replicating Viral Vector
Shenzhen Geno-Immune Medical Institute: COVID-19/aPC
1 trial in 1 country
Not Approved
Non Replicating Viral Vector
Shenzhen Geno-Immune Medical Institute: LV-SMENP
2 trials in 1 country
Not Approved
RNA
Stemirna Therapeutics Co Ltd: mRNACOVID-19 Vaccine
1 trial in 1 country
Not Approved
RNA
Walvax: mRNA
4 trials in 1 country
Not Approved
Replicating Viral Vector
Wantai: DelNS1-2019-nCoV-RBD-OPT
2 trials in 1 country
Not Approved
Protein Subunit
West China Hospital: Recombinant (Sf9 cell)
5 trials in 4 countries
Not Approved

Source: based on data from McGill COVID19 Vaccine Tracker Team 2021

Other resources

For a more comprehensive picture of the COVID-19 vaccine landscape, our team has been tracking vaccine purchase and manufacturing agreements, donations and R&D investments . An analysis of the data and dataset are available here.

For more resources on COVID-19 research and development, intellectual property and access, and pricing, procurement, distribution and manufacturing, see our COVID-19 Data Sources page.

References

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