Covid 19

Billions of dollars have been invested in researching and developing over 200 COVID-19 vaccine candidates, more than a dozen of which have been approved for use in at least one country. 

Our team is compiling and analyzing publicly available data to better understand the public and private funding that supported the development of these vaccines, how production capacity is scaling up, and which countries are gaining access to vaccines. 

You can view our analysis and download our datasets here: 

We have also compiled a list of external open data sources that are relevant to research and development, intellectual property, and pricing of COVID-19 countermeasures: COVID-19 Data Resources

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We summarize here the main changes we have observed in our data collection since the last update on

9 November 2021.


As 2021 comes to a close and a new variant of concern emerged, several new announcements were made with respect to COVID-19 vaccines. However, no significant changes were seen in vaccine access trends, as it continues to show results similar to those seen early on in 2021. 


While low income countries have only vaccinated 7.1% of their population with at least one dose, several countries signed new contracts for boosters and pediatric shots including Hong Kong, Israel, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The European Union has now signed its eighth purchase agreement with the finalisation of Valneva’s contract. Indonesia became the first country to approve Novavax’s vaccine, while Bharat Biotech’s vaccine candidate ‘Covaxin’ received WHO’s approval for emergency use. For an updated analysis and full dataset on pricing and vaccine purchases, visit our ‘COVID-19 Vaccine Access’ page.

COVAX and the US reached new milestones in vaccine delivery, and the EU promised more doses before the end of 2021. Japan announced that it is expanding its dose donations to Africa and Latin America. Argentina began donations to other countries, starting with Vietnam, Mozambique and Caribbean countries. Moderna announced new agreements that allow European countries to now donate doses of its vaccine. Switzerland agreed to swap places with COVAX in the vaccine delivery queue, allowing COVAX priority access to 1m Moderna doses. 


Our donations data has tracked commitments (and/or deliveries) of nearly 2bn doses, with over 150 recipients. For donations where recipient information is available, close to 200m have been allocated to East Asia and Pacific countries and over 100 million for Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia each. As seen in the last update, donations to African countries have been increasing. Further details and the dataset on donations are available on our ‘COVID-19 Vaccine Access’ page. 


However, these purchases and donation announcements came amidst renewed calls for vaccine equity. As of 10 December, COVAX has received 590m doses of the total expected 3,451m doses (including purchases and donations). COVAX and AVAT issued a joint statement raising concerns on the ‘ad-hoc’ way in which donations have taken place. Doses are said to be donated at short notice and with little shelf life, making it difficult to use them effectively. Several instances of dose donations getting rejected, discarded or expired have been reported by the media. The joint statement called for greater predictability, better coordination and unearmarking of doses. 

In vaccine manufacturing, India’s Zydus Cadila signed a new agreement with the South Korean manufacturer Enzychem to expand manufacturing of its novel plasmid DNA vaccine ZyCoV-D for LMICs. AstraZeneca also signed new agreements in Vietnam and Brazil: under new cooperation agreements, AstraZeneca will support expansion of Vietnam’s pharmaceutical capacity. In Brazil, AstraZeneca signed new agreements with its existing manufacturing partner Fiocruz, to purchase API for further manufacturing in 2022. An analysis and the complete dataset on the manufacturing landscape can be found on our ‘COVID-19 Vaccine Manufacturing’ page.

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